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fruticose (adjective) – general growth form where the thallus is three-dimensional, either erect, pendulous (= pendent) or prostrate, rarely, usually circular or angular in cross-section lacking a distinct upper or lower surface, rarely completely irregular and tangled; often differentiated into a main, central axis (= stem = stalk = trunk) and several (primary and secondary) branches; the central axis and branches are usually ± terete, rarely may become ± flattened, but without corresponding dorsiventrally layered thallus anatomy of foliose thalli; generally attached to the substrate at a single point, or remaining unattached and vagrant. If developing from a primary thallus, referred to as cladoniiform. For lack of a better term, fruticose is also applied to globular to tubular vagrant thalli derived from crustose to foliose taxa. Related terms: fascicle, branch.

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