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umbilicate (adjective) – (1) a foliose growth form attached at a single point, usually by a short stalk (umbilicus) at or near the centre of a more or less orbicular thallus; generally with the lower cortex better developed than the upper one (giving the main structural support to the thallus), a loose to hollow medulla, and algae distributed in areas of optimum light regardless of relation to the morphological upper side; when strongly polyphyllous (often with the upper part swollen), sometimes difficult to distinguish from squamulose, toniniform, or placodioid. (2) thallus with few large lobes or forming one single ± orbicular lobe; attached only with a single, central holdfast (= umbilicus). Some umbilicate lichens typically form closely aggregated multi-lobed thalli, each with an umbilicus. They nevertheless clearly belong into this category and must not be confused with large lobed foliose lichens, where each lobe has multiple holdfasts.

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