nomenclatural type (noun, pl. nomenclatural types;nomenclature term) – reference points of the Linnaean System to which names are permanently affixed: (1) for the species rank and below types are generally physical specimens, e. g., preserved herbarium specimens or culture collection in a physiologically inactive state (cf. type specimen); (2) for ranks above the species nomenclatural types refer to the names of taxa (cf. type taxa), i. e., each family is permanently attached to one single genus, each genus is permanently attached to one single species. Several different nomenclatural types can be distinguished: holotype, isotype, syntype, lectotype, isolectotype, neotype; other specimens are sometimes also referred to as types but are not nomenclatural types in the strict sense: paratype, topotype. Related terms: type.